Dementia is caused by a variety of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. A new study published in The Lancet offers hope that many of us could avoid dementia by making healthier choices for our brains. The study was conducted by the International Commission on Dementia Prevention, Intervention, and Care, a panel of 24 experts assembled to conduct a review and meta-analysis of existing dementia research. The scientists concluded that with a cure to Alzheimer’s disease likely to still be years away, the best approach is to focus on prevention.
Among the contents of the report was a series of recommendations for reducing the risk of dementia. They identified nine modifiable risk factors that are responsible for 35% of dementia cases. These factors seem to act primarily at a particular stage of life:
- Childhood: Low educational attainment
- Mid life: Hypertension, obesity, hearing loss
- Late life: Depression, diabetes, physical inactivity, smoking, social isolation
The researchers argue that by addressing these modifiable risk factors, a third of dementia cases could be prevented. They showed that by reducing the prevalence of these risk factors by only 10%, more than 1 million dementia cases could be avoided worldwide. The report also included several recommendations for dementia management and care. These included pharmacological treatment of dementia patients at all disease stages, individualized care tailored to each patient, managing neuropsychiatric symptoms with social or environmental interventions, and providing support for caregivers, who are at an increased risk of depression and other health problems.
A press release of the data presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference noted that there are many other likely risk factors associated with dementia, including diet, air pollution, and sleep. These were not mentioned in the report due to a lack of conclusive research, but it is likely that even more dementia cases could be preventable with these other factors considered. For more information on brain health and dementia prevention, see How to Reduce Your Dementia Risk in 2017.