Sleep Apnea May Contribute to Alzheimer’s Disease

*Thank you all for your patience during my one-month hiatus. To read about my adventures backpacking across Europe or my current internship researching Alzheimer’s disease in Switzerland, check out my travel blog, Brains and Backpacks.*

 

Around 3-7% of adults suffer from obstructive sleep apnea, a condition in which the upper airway tract periodically collapses during sleep. This can lead to loud snoring and poor sleep quality. If left untreated, it can contribute to a multitude of health conditions and decreased overall quality of life. Among these possible complications is Alzheimer’s disease. People with Alzheimer’s are five times more likely to have obstructive sleep apnea than the general population.

Recent evidence has provided more direct proof for the link between sleep apnea and Alzheimer’s. In an editorial published in the journal Oncotarget, researchers from Tokyo’s National Institute of Neuroscience described their recent work investigating a new mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. To do so, they subjected the mice to intermittent hypoxia by decreasing oxygen levels in their cages for one minute, followed by two minutes of normal oxygen levels. This cycle repeated for eight hours per day while the mice slept for periods ranging from 5 to 28 days. This type of model has been used before to simulate the effects of sleep apnea.

When the researcher’s examined the mice’s hippocampi, the part of the brain responsible for long-term memory formation, they observed that many of the processes associated with aging were also triggered by the intermittent hypoxia. This suggests that sleep apnea could lead to an increased rate of aging in the brain. The mice also had high levels of hyperphosphorylated tau, a toxic protein that forms tangles in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. These results are in line with other recent studies, which have shown that intermittent hypoxia causes neurons to become hyperexcited and produce greater amounts of amyloid-beta, another protein involved in Alzheimer’s disease.

The authors suggested that this protocol could be useful in developing new animal models of Alzheimer’s disease, since it triggers many of the disease’s pathological signatures using only an environmental stimulus. The models could be applied for studying how aging and sleep disruptions contribute to development of Alzheimer’s over time.

At present, there is not yet enough concrete evidence to conclude a direct link between sleep apnea and Alzheimer’s disease. However, if you or a loved one experiences sleep apnea or other sleep disorders, there would certainly be no harm in seeking medical help. Correcting sleep problems can lead to greater quality of life and reduced risk of many medical conditions. Perhaps Alzheimer’s is among them.

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